How to play a better role in firefighting equipment

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Broadly speaking, firefighting equipment refers to all the hardware equipment that the officers and men use to train by means of the Japanese, or through the scientific use of the scene to complete the fire fighting and rescue. The status, maintenance and management level of firefighting equipment, daily training, and on-site use all determine the tactical and tactical effects adopted, which are important factors affecting the success rate.

1 Overview of domestic and foreign fire equipment

The foreign firefighting equipment started earlier and there are two kinds of European standards. Taking into account factors such as environmental protection, people, geography, and climate, such as the face of an air-breathing respirator Mask, highlights the physical characteristics of local people; the German ascendant considers local architectural features and safety factors. The maximum height is mostly about 76 m . The power distribution of the engine mainly considers the duration of continuous operation, and less consideration is given to the lift.

RHZKF positive pressure air breathing apparatus

China's equipment construction and equipment are mainly based on foreign countries and highlight local characteristics. In recent years, cars have been equipped with nuclear, biological, modular equipment, cars and other special vehicles, now with nearly 30 categories of nearly 20,000 fire involving protection, Prosecution and other 11 series of equipment. However, the level of equipment and application of fire-fighting vehicle equipment in China is still unable to adapt to the functions given by the new Fire Protection Law of the People's Republic of China. There are blindly pursued the highest altitude, the largest lift, the largest water-carrying capacity, the largest flow, etc., and no step-by-step configuration has been established; The special chassis is mostly made of commercial chassis; some pursue the short-term effect and ignore safety factors. There have been accidents such as the breakage of the boom boom and the bursting of the pulse water gun .

Spray pulse multipurpose water gun

2 Problems in domestic firefighting equipment

There are still some gaps in the aspects of equipment, management, and utilization of fire-fighting equipment in China, including:

(1) Unreasonable vehicle equipment configuration. The proportion of main vehicles with low performance is high, and the number of special vehicles is low. In many places , the fire trucks with low performance and single functions such as Dongfeng 140 and Liberation are still the main vehicles. Vehicles are not considered scientific compilation, resulting in many problems, such as the out of the vehicle, the water supply vehicles can not be delivered; mobile air supply, hand lift pump, rescue air cushion and other equipment, inconvenience in the car. Influencing access; Plasma cutting arcs and other equipment are equipped with idle phenomena; the same squadron equipped with different types of air respirator and manufacturers, making the backrest, cylinders and masks can not be universal.

(2) The quality of some equipment and equipment is not closed. If the fire trucks have low pressure and range, some air respirator masks are not secure, and the mask window screws are easily cracked. Alarms are false alarms; emergency rescue boots do not have a tamper-evident or puncture-resistant function, which can easily lead to firefighters’ foot injuries; rescue suits are airtight; helmets use pressure on the head for prolonged use.

Rescue service

(3) The design of firefighting equipment is not practical enough. If some engine and water pump engine do not match the power of the fire engine, the pump function of the fire engine is not fully utilized; the protective clothing for fire fighting is not divided into winter and summer, and the waterproof performance is not high and it is not fit; the safety belt is inconvenient to wear and can easily fall when running; the combat boots are not fit , 'Non-slip, boots and boots, excellent material, inconvenient activities.

(4) The management system is not scientific enough. Caused officers and soldiers to lack of understanding of the equipment, the name of the same equipment is different; after the equipment defect, can not be replaced in time; management is not a strong sense of responsibility, the phenomenon of serious loss; training and duty equipment regardless; lack of uniform national fire equipment acceptance criteria, The business level of the acceptance personnel is not high; the technical standards are not uniform, the specifications of the fuel tank are various, and the operating panel gauges are different.

(5) Follow-up services for imported equipment cannot keep up. Imported fire-fighting equipment lacks certain maintenance points and maintenance personnel in China, and it is difficult to synchronize after-sales services. It takes a long time and costs high, especially when agents change or when the top-loading vehicle and chassis are part of different companies, maintenance is more difficult.

(6) The combination of personnel and equipment is not enough. Many fire-fighting equipment are intelligent, integrated, and integrated high-tech equipment. A small number of officers and men are not well-accepted, plus the psychological quality is not high under the state of emergency at the scene, and they are easy to operate or violate regulations. The imported equipment does not dare to be boldly trained to affect the function of the on-site equipment. A little knowledge of the equipment, such as the majority of units on the climbing car to stay in the high-lift function, lift the car arm down 15 . The effect of drooping to save people has not been exerted.

3 How to play the role of existing equipment

In order to better meet the needs of economic, social, and urban development, China's fire-fighting equipment needs to be improved and optimized.

3 . 1Equipment from the perspective of minimum investment and maximum social benefit

(1) Equipped according to local differences. China has a vast area. Equipment production and equipment must take into consideration factors such as local temperature and water supply; it must be integrated with the level of economic development in different regions, especially in economically underdeveloped areas. It must be matched with standards and scientific support to prevent the equipment from being disintegrated. to play the overall effect; to grasp the principles of moderate excessive equipped, as the county comprehensive emergency rescue team equipped with the basic vehicle, on the technical performance of the main rescue vehicle, the pump outlet pressure water tank fire performance, taking into account the high level need to supply water to priority 1. 8 MPa pump.

(2) Comprehensively consider the characteristics of each place and plan to provide it. Based on the characteristics of the city, based on the overall planning of the localities, national economic and social development plans, and the actual fire-fighting and rescue needs, the distribution of major hazards and the status of fire-fighting infrastructure should be analyzed, and related factors such as population should be used to evaluate the current status of equipment. Planning equipment. For example, Jiande in Hangzhou is one of the areas with severe natural disasters and is also a concentration area of ​​chemical companies. It is necessary to prioritize the deployment of anti-flood equipment and chemical accident disposal equipment. In addition, taking into account the fact that the pump fire truck cannot be watered and inconvenient to maintain, and the fact that the foam fire truck can both emit water and produce foam, it should be equipped in the order of a bubble truck, a tank truck and a pump truck. For some elevated and traffic-congested cities, in order to ease the current status of multiple-vehicle blocking, some fire-fighting motorcycles can be targeted. For areas in areas where special disasters are threatened, such as areas near nuclear power plants, lessons learned from Japan’s nuclear leakage disposal should be learned, and nuclear weapons and nuclear vehicles, nuclear radioactive detectors, anti-chemical and nuclear weapons, mechanical operators, and remote Remote control equipment, iodine tablets, zeolite and so on.

(3) Based on the status quo of China's station shortage, balance equipment. China currently has a total of about 3,570 fire stations and more than 150,000 firefighters. By the end of April 2011 , the national population was 13 . 700 million, the total number of fire stations in the country's population is about 0 . 13:50 000 (developed countries is 1: 50,000), the number of firefighters share of the country's population live births 1. 09 , failing to reach the standard of 4/10% of international practice ( France and other developed countries have reached around 40% of the world's total ) , and there are practical problems in the absence of stations, which is not consistent with the demand for fire safety in China's economic development. . A Case Study, Xiaoshan District, there are two fire stations (there are still three under construction), in addition to full-time team in place, effective active duty personnel 61 people, a police number is 2010 2083 onwards, the per capita rates of police 31. 15th , but Xiaoshan District has a total fiscal revenue of 182 in 2010 . 300 million yuan, priority can be given to lift cars, air compression foam cars, in order to improve the efficiency of firefighting and rescue. However, relatively backward Zhao'an, the county 's fiscal revenue in 2010 was only 11 . 91.7 billion yuan, currently two fire stations , in addition to the local full-time team, the effective on-duty officers on duty 30 people, the number of alarms per year from 67 , the average per-person alarm rate is 2 . From 23rd onwards, some special equipment can be postponed but equipped with basic personal protection and conventional firefighting and rescue equipment .

In the absence of a small number of people, it is necessary to fully consider the differences between sites and existing personnel and equipment at different locations, and ensure the investment in phases and classifications. It can also be classified as a category according to the economic level of each region. The construction funds are to be resolved by the local government itself. For less-developed areas, the provincial and municipal finances provide corresponding support, and the proportion of funds for implementation at all levels is clearly defined so as to facilitate the balanced development of equipment construction within the province ( city ) .

(4) Break through the box and conduct the equipping by seeking truth from facts. In many places, fire-fighting equipment is government procurement. The lowest price is won the bid, and the quality is difficult to guarantee. To break through the frame of low-cost bids, some unclear agents should be disqualified. For some troops urgently needed, but not in the procurement of equipment within the directory, such as infrared instrument, such as helmets, j} Prosecution and practical protective equipment. To give convenience and permission to purchase. We must consider the small innovations and gizmos that have been carried out in various places and, after a safety argument, actively promote them.

There are some conflicts in many standards that have been issued, and they must be carefully controlled and ordered. For some types of equipment such as demolition and life-saving, which involve more duplicated equipment, duplicate investment should be avoided. Priority must be given to the difficulty of liaison between the underground and high-rise buildings. Modern communications equipment.

3 . 2 Equipped from the perspective of city layout and site distribution

It is necessary to comprehensively evaluate the local public safety, disaster prevention and mitigation needs, site distribution, and existing equipment at each site, and combine the standards for the construction of fire stations. Sites in water-scarce areas should highlight equipment for high-power water tank fire trucks, long-distance water supply equipment, water storage water tanks, and pressure-resistant long-distance water belts. If necessary, they must combine urban construction with as many sites as possible. Build some fire pools and water intakes. The suburban junction site will be equipped with a hand-held motorized pump that can be continuously operated and a small-scale fire engine with high flexibility. Sites in densely populated areas should be equipped with rescue vehicles, personal protective equipment and rescue air cushions, ladders, stretchers and other rescue equipment. Sites in urban CBDs must consider the reality of densely populated, high-rise and high-grade buildings, and highlight equipment such as platform fire trucks, high-spraying vehicles, air-compression foam vehicles, equipment fire engines, and high-rise water supply facilities. For the sites in the chemical industry area, equipment such as personal protection, detection, plugging, decontamination, transmission, and gas supply should be highlighted. At the same time, equipment such as foam fire trucks, dry powder vehicles, high spray trucks, and chemical accident rescue vehicles should be considered. Store different types of fire extinguishing agents, such as Class A foams, high-magnification foams, and anti- solvent foams.

Motorized pump

3 . 3 Strengthen the training of fire professionals

Equipment management and construction involves various disciplines such as electromechanical, chemical, materials, and construction. It is necessary to actively explore the road for the construction of equipment talents that meet the needs of army building and development, solve the phenomenon of less professional talents, and promote the improvement of equipment technicians' business capabilities and equipment. The overall performance and performance of the technicians are included in the evaluation, and are linked to the appointment and removal of the positions and the promotion of the grades. We must follow the route of combining military and military affairs, strengthen cooperation with enterprises, universities and scientific research institutions, promote the design and manufacture of fire fighting equipment, and drive the improvement of the operational level of military equipment personnel. Based on the fire information network and the Internet, equipment columns can be set up to introduce the types, development status, performance parameters, operation methods, applicable locations, maintenance essentials, and market average prices of military equipment and equipment, and to create a platform for equipment talents.

3 . 4 focus on the improvement of related stealth capabilities

(1) Improve equipment operation capabilities. The compulsory service is only 2 years , and training for some equipment is not enough. In addition, some imported equipment is not equipped and training is not allowed, resulting in a low level of operation of officers and soldiers. To learn from foreign practices, training and actual equipment should be separated as much as possible to provide supporting simulation training equipment; for life detectors and other equipment that usually use less equipment should dare to train.

(2) Improve equipment maintenance capabilities. Some investigation and inspection facilities, such as toxic gas detectors and combustible gas alarms, have not been subject to regular conditions and have not been regularly tested by the agents, resulting in inaccurate data on fire detection and on-site inspections. It is necessary to properly introduce calibration equipment for related instruments, especially for common equipment such as air respirators, and to strengthen the construction of testing rooms and maintenance room equipment; and to strengthen the training of equipment maintenance and repair, equipment performance test methods, and rely on relevant equipment management systems. Do the entry of various data.

(3) Strengthen the daily management of equipment. Combining with the "Public Fire-fighting Forces Fire-fighting and Rescue Equipment Management Regulations" promulgated in 2011 , we will standardize the system for the maintenance and repair of equipment for on-duty operations and a unified system for submitting and reporting equipment for statistical reporting and scrapping. It is necessary to introduce local logistics and warehousing concepts, combine the combat support team, and highlight the storage and electronic tag management of fire fighting equipment. Implementing the equipment's entry and exit to use electronic tags for registration, statistics, and management. It is also possible to set identifiers on fire engines and to read and write air respirator electronic tags and offensive combat suits on board the on-board equipment during actual combat, and to automatically record the air respirator. The use of time, personnel, and automatically remind the in-house offensive personnel need to withdraw the time to achieve the technical and intelligent combat.

(4) Strengthen the familiarity with the demand for equipment space. Take the 101 m ascend car as an example. Its external dimensions are 16 . 3 m × 2 . 6 m × 4 m , the turning radius is 16 m , the total weight is 62 t , and the net width is 8 . 3 ITI requires at least 21 mXll m of operating surface for all deployments, the height and turning radius of ordinary fire lanes, and the weight and area of ​​ordinary climbing operation surfaces are not up to the requirements, plus private cars occupying lanes in the evening parking areas. Access and operation are more difficult. Attention should be paid to the familiarity and argumentation of the equipment space requirements in peacetime. Grasp the ability of the fire lane to operate at different times during the day and at night, and strengthen the load-carrying test of the climbing surface.

3 . 5 Establish scientific application and elimination mechanism of equipment

(1) From the bottleneck of firefighting and rescue, we must introduce relevant equipment in a targeted manner, for example: to strengthen the language exchanges of in-house attackers and scientifically use air-breathing masks with intercom function; Water fog wall-extinguishing fire extinguishing system; After dismantling billboards on the external walls of buildings with local high-arc trucks for the demolition of buildings, fire extinguishers are used in combination with high-spray trucks; smoke extraction, cooling, and image transmission are carried out in hazardous locations with fire-fighting robots; Use a life detector with a positioning function.

(2) It is necessary to give full play to the maximum efficiency of existing equipment. For example, the high-level liquid supply function of dry foam in an air-compression foam vehicle has exceeded the bottleneck of high-level liquid supply of more than 200 m ; existing large-power fire engines have long-distance water supply capacity. Breakthrough the previous concept, PSPl500 type fire pump fire pump, in the main line length of 1 500 m , the water dispenser after the two guns, can fully reach the effective range and pressure.

(3) Do not dare to abandon equipment that has proven to be ineffective or unscientific in practice, such as plasma cutters; in many places, a cloth sleeve or fleece sleeve is put on the outer surface of the carbon fiber bottle of the air respirator so that the fluorescent belt on the gas cylinder loses its glow. effect. In addition, cloth sets generally have not been subjected to high temperature and flame retardant treatment, artificially increasing the danger in high temperature environments.

4 conclusions

The deployment, management, and use of fire fighting equipment must be based on comprehensive consideration of economic input and social benefits, combined with actual and actual fire fighting needs, and the implementation of scientific and rational macro and micro decision-making in order to effectively realize the maximum effect of fire fighting equipment.

The information in this article comes from the Internet and was reorganized and edited by China Rescue Equipment Network.


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